Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

Sayaka Sogawa, Hiroya Sugisaki, Hiroaki Saito, Yuji Okazaki, Tsuneo Ono, Shinji Shimode, Tomohiko Kikuchi

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Abstract

We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest temperature did not vary greatly (from 1.0 °C to 1.8 °C), which indicates high temperatures act as a limiting factor as opposed to low temperatures. Furthermore, the integrated chlorophyll a values exhibited significant negative correlation with median depths of only E. pacifica at night. These results indicate a strategy which makes E. pacifica the dominant species in the area, that is, it has a trade-off of long migrations and a warmer environment that accelerates metabolism, in return for obtaining a food-rich environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalDeep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume109
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016 Mar 1

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vertical distribution
water
temperature
mesopelagic zone
vertical migration
limiting factor
trade-off
chlorophyll a
partitioning
transect
metabolism
food
habitat

Keywords

  • DVM
  • Euphausiids
  • Habitat partitioning
  • Oyashio
  • Vertical distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Oceanography

Cite this

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title = "Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific",
keywords = "DVM, Euphausiids, Habitat partitioning, Oyashio, Vertical distribution",
author = "Sayaka Sogawa and Hiroya Sugisaki and Hiroaki Saito and Yuji Okazaki and Tsuneo Ono and Shinji Shimode and Tomohiko Kikuchi",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.dsr.2015.12.010",
volume = "109",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers",
issn = "0967-0637",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

AU - Sogawa,Sayaka

AU - Sugisaki,Hiroya

AU - Saito,Hiroaki

AU - Okazaki,Yuji

AU - Ono,Tsuneo

AU - Shimode,Shinji

AU - Kikuchi,Tomohiko

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest temperature did not vary greatly (from 1.0 °C to 1.8 °C), which indicates high temperatures act as a limiting factor as opposed to low temperatures. Furthermore, the integrated chlorophyll a values exhibited significant negative correlation with median depths of only E. pacifica at night. These results indicate a strategy which makes E. pacifica the dominant species in the area, that is, it has a trade-off of long migrations and a warmer environment that accelerates metabolism, in return for obtaining a food-rich environment.

AB - We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest temperature did not vary greatly (from 1.0 °C to 1.8 °C), which indicates high temperatures act as a limiting factor as opposed to low temperatures. Furthermore, the integrated chlorophyll a values exhibited significant negative correlation with median depths of only E. pacifica at night. These results indicate a strategy which makes E. pacifica the dominant species in the area, that is, it has a trade-off of long migrations and a warmer environment that accelerates metabolism, in return for obtaining a food-rich environment.

KW - DVM

KW - Euphausiids

KW - Habitat partitioning

KW - Oyashio

KW - Vertical distribution

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U2 - 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.12.010

DO - 10.1016/j.dsr.2015.12.010

M3 - Article

VL - 109

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers

T2 - Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers

JF - Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers

SN - 0967-0637

ER -