Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana

David K. Essumang, Albert Eshun, Jonathan N. Hogarh, John K. Bentum, Joseph K. Adjei, Junya Negishi, Shihori Nakamichi, Md Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Shigeki Masunaga

    Abstract

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in various media including human serum. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation and possible negative health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study presents the first report on contamination from PFAAs in river and drinking water in Ghana. The targeted PFAAs were perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C4–14 carbon chain and perfluoroalkane sulphonic acids (PFSAs) with C6, 8, 10. Five PFAA congeners – PFOA, PFOS, PFHxA, PFDA and PFPeA – were commonly detected in river and tap water. The mean concentrations of ∑ PFAAs in the Kakum and Pra Rivers were 281 and 398 ng/L, while tap water (supplied from the treatment of water from those rivers) contained concentrations of 197 and 200 ng/L, respectively. PFOA and PFOS constituted about 99% of the ∑ PFAAs. The risk quotient (RQ) attributed to drinking of tap water was estimated at 1.01 and 1.74 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. For a country that has not produced these compounds, the RQs were unexpectedly high, raising concerns particularly about contamination from such emerging pollutants in local water sources. The study revealed limitations of local tap water treatment in getting rid of these emerging pollutants.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)729-735
    Number of pages7
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Volume579
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2017 Feb 1

    Fingerprint

    acid
    Acids
    water
    Water
    Rivers
    pollutant
    river
    water treatment
    drinking water
    Water treatment
    Potable water
    Contamination
    carboxylic acid
    drinking
    bioaccumulation
    river water
    serum
    river basin
    carbon
    Bioaccumulation

    Keywords

    • Kakum River
    • Perfluorinated compounds
    • Perfluorooctane sulphonate
    • Perfluorooctanoic acid
    • Pra River

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Engineering
    • Environmental Chemistry
    • Waste Management and Disposal
    • Pollution

    Cite this

    Essumang, D. K., Eshun, A., Hogarh, J. N., Bentum, J. K., Adjei, J. K., Negishi, J., ... Masunaga, S. (2017). Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana. Science of the Total Environment, 579, 729-735. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.035

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana. / Essumang, David K.; Eshun, Albert; Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Bentum, John K.; Adjei, Joseph K.; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki.

    In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 579, 01.02.2017, p. 729-735.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Essumang, DK, Eshun, A, Hogarh, JN, Bentum, JK, Adjei, JK, Negishi, J, Nakamichi, S, Habibullah-Al-Mamun, M & Masunaga, S 2017, 'Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana' Science of the Total Environment, vol 579, pp. 729-735. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.035
    Essumang DK, Eshun A, Hogarh JN, Bentum JK, Adjei JK, Negishi J et al. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana. Science of the Total Environment. 2017 Feb 1;579:729-735. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.035

    Essumang, David K.; Eshun, Albert; Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Bentum, John K.; Adjei, Joseph K.; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki / Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana.

    In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 579, 01.02.2017, p. 729-735.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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