Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan

Masahiro Tokumura, Rurika Hatayama, Kouichi Tatsu, Toshiyuki Naito, Tetsuya Takeda, Mohammad Raknuzzaman, Md Habibullah Al-Mamun, Shigeki Masunaga

    Abstract

    The concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the indoor air and dust were measured in 25 unoccupied cars in Japan. In the indoor air of the cars, most OPFRs were neither detected nor found at a concentration lower than the method quantification limit. The highest concentration (1500 ng m−3) was obtained for tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP). By contrast, many OPFRs were detected in the dust samples collected from the interior of the cars. TCIPP and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were present at the highest concentrations at 390 μg g−1 (in dust from car seats) and 640 μg g−1 (in dust from car floor mats), respectively. The highest median concentrations (35 μg g−1 for car seats, 53 μg g−1 for car floor mats) were obtained for tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP). According to the results of our exposure assessment, the typical exposures to OPFRs via inhalation in car cabins ranged from 9.0×10−4 to 7.8×10−1 ng kg-bw−1 day−1. The typical exposures to OPFRs via dust ingestion ranged from 9.2×10−4 to 8.8×10−1 ng kg-bw−1 day−1. We compared these results with the ref-erence doses for OPFRs and found that, based on cur-rent information about the toxicities of OPFRs, exposure to OPFRs in car cabins via inhalation and dust ingestion is unlikely to have adverse human health effects.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number48
    JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
    Volume189
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2017 Jan 1

    Fingerprint

    Flame Retardants
    Organophosphates
    Dust
    Air
    Railroad cars
    automobile
    Flame retardants
    organophosphate
    dust
    Phosphates
    indoor air
    phosphate
    Inhalation
    Eating
    Seats
    Health
    Toxicity
    toxicity

    Keywords

    • Air pollution
    • Car interior air quality
    • Dust ingestion
    • Exposure assessment
    • Flame retardants
    • Risk assessment

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Science(all)
    • Pollution
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

    Cite this

    Tokumura, M., Hatayama, R., Tatsu, K., Naito, T., Takeda, T., Raknuzzaman, M., ... Masunaga, S. (2017). Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(2), [48]. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5725-1

    Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan. / Tokumura, Masahiro; Hatayama, Rurika; Tatsu, Kouichi; Naito, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Tetsuya; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Al-Mamun, Md Habibullah; Masunaga, Shigeki.

    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 189, No. 2, 48, 01.01.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Tokumura, M, Hatayama, R, Tatsu, K, Naito, T, Takeda, T, Raknuzzaman, M, Al-Mamun, MH & Masunaga, S 2017, 'Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan' Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol 189, no. 2, 48. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5725-1
    Tokumura M, Hatayama R, Tatsu K, Naito T, Takeda T, Raknuzzaman M et al. Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2017 Jan 1;189(2). 48. Available from, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5725-1

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Hatayama, Rurika; Tatsu, Kouichi; Naito, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Tetsuya; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Al-Mamun, Md Habibullah; Masunaga, Shigeki / Organophosphate flame retardants in the indoor air and dust in cars in Japan.

    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 189, No. 2, 48, 01.01.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    author = "Masahiro Tokumura and Rurika Hatayama and Kouichi Tatsu and Toshiyuki Naito and Tetsuya Takeda and Mohammad Raknuzzaman and Al-Mamun, {Md Habibullah} and Shigeki Masunaga",
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